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APA Citations: APA Reference Citations

Information on citing sources in American Psychological Association format (7th edition).

APA Standard Citation

APA (7th edition) citations are built using the following format:

General: Author. (Date). Title [Format]. Source.
Book: Author, A. A. (Publication Date). Title of book (# ed.). Publisher.
Article: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Publication Date). Title of article. Title of Periodical, vol(no), page#-page#.

APA Print Citations: Books

Print Books

1 Author:
Blass, R. B. (2002). The meaning of the dream in psychoanalysis. State University of New York Press.
2 Authors:
Hall, C. S. & Nordby, V. J. (1999). A primer of Jungian psychology. Meridian.
3-19 Authors:
Spielman, R. M., Jenkins, W. J., & Lovett, M. D. (2017). Psychology. OpenStax.
1 Editor:
Campbell, J. (Ed.). (1970). Myths, dreams, and religion. E.P. Dutton.
2+ Editors:
Valli, K., Hoss, R. J., & Gongloff, R. P. (Eds.). (2019). Dreams: Understanding biology, psychology, and culture. Greenwood.
1 Translator (Republished):
Freud, S. (2010). The interpretation of dreams (J. Strachey, Trans.). Basic Books. (Original work published 1900)
Craighead, W. E. & Nemeroff, C. B. (Eds.). (2004). The concise Corsini encyclopedia of psychology and behavioral science (3rd ed.). John Wiley & Sons.
Corporate Author:
American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). American Psychological Association.

APA Print Citations: Articles

Print Articles

Article in an Anthology/Encyclopedia:
Wolff, N. (2019). Mindfulness. In R. D. Morgan (Ed.), The SAGE Encyclopedia of Criminal Psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 888-892). SAGE Reference.
Magazine Article (no author):
Reset your sleep: Having trouble dozing off? Find out how you can guarantee great zzzs. (2017). Women’s Fitness, 170, 62–64.

APA Miscellaneous Citations

Class Lectures

Cornett, J. (2020). APA overview & resources. [Lecture notes]. Canvas at Cerro Coso Community College.

Court Cases

NAAP v. California Bd. of Psychology, 228 F.3d 1043 (9th Cir. 2000).

State Statutes

APA Online Citations: EBooks & Database Articles

EBooks (Same as Print Books)

1 Author:
Flanagan, O. J. (2000). Dreaming souls: Sleep, dreams, and the evolution of the conscious mind. Oxford University Press.
2+ Editors:
Biaggio, M. & Hersen, M. (Eds.). (2002). Issues in the psychology of women. Springer.


Database Articles

Journal Article (with DOI):
Thomas, D. (2019). Dream tending and play: The vital dimension. Journal of Jungian Scholarly Studies, 14, 95–112.
Journal Article (without DOI): 
Khodarahimi, S. (2009). Dreams In Jungian psychology: The use of dreams as an instrument for research, diagnosis and treatment of social phobia. Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences, 16(4), 38–45.
Encyclopedia Article (no author):
Dreams. (2016). In J. L. Longe (Ed.), The Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology (3rd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 334-336).
Newspaper Article:
Corderoy, A. (2013, April 6). Sleep disorders linked to depression in young women. Sydney Morning Herald, 6.
Newspaper Article (no author):
Lack of sleep linked to mental illness. (2010, September 16). Filipino Post, 5.

APA Online Citations: Web & Media Resources

Web Pages

Ruhl , C. (2020, July 09). Stages of sleep: REM and non-REM sleep cycles. Simply Psychology.
Webpage (Government/Corporate Author):
National Institutes of Health (2021, June). Lack of sleep in middle age may increase dementia risk. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Webpage (No Author, No date):
Dreaming. (n.d.). Psychology Today.
Blog Post:
Taylor, M. (2012, May 17). The psychology of better sleep: Sleeping tips for leading a healthier lifestyle. Amerisleep.


Films on Demand Video:
Cowling, R. (Director). (2016). Freud: Genius of the modern world. [Film]. BBC.
YouTube Video:
TedX Talks. (2014, June 25). What can we learn from our dreams? | Dr. Dylan Selterman | TEDxUMD [Video]. YouTube.
Espinoza, A. (2012, June 28). Carl Jung for Pifal [Photograph]. Flickr.
Escotet, M. A. [@DrEscotet]. (2021, November 13). Why do we sleep? What science does and doesn’t know. Not getting a good night’s rest stops us from retaining [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter.

Notes on Formatting Reference Citations


  • Include all authors' names, putting the surname first, followed by a comma and the initials of first and middle names.
  • Include a period after each initial, a space between initials, and a comma between authors. There should be a comma and an ampersand (&) before the final author.
  • If there are more than twenty authors, list the first 19, an ellipses, and then the final author.
  • The author may be a person or a corporation. If there is no author whatsoever, omit it and put the title before the date.


  • Include the publication year in parenthenses. If available, also spell out the month and the day after the year and a comma.
  • If the publication date is missing, replace it with "n.d." 
  • If citing a classic work that has been republished, include the original date at the end of the citation in parentheses: (Original work published YYYY).
  • If citing several works with the same author and publication year (e.g. several web pages), differentiate with letters: 2019a, 2019b, etc. If none have a date, use "n.d.-a," "n.d.-b," etc.


  • Title: Titles of standalone works like books, journals, and films are italicized, while shorter parts of works like essays, chapters, articles, and poems are not.
  • In the title of an article or book, only the first word in the title, the first word in the subtitle, and proper nouns are capitalized (sentence case). In the title of a journal, all significant words are capitalized (title case).
  • Include the edition or volume number in parentheses after the title and before the period. 
  • Blog post titles are treated like articles (no italics), web page and social media post titles are treated like books (italics), and website titles are treated like publishers (no italics).
  • Treat the first 20 words of a social media posts as its title. Hashtags and URLs are treated as single words.
  • Include square brackets for non-text media resources after the title and before the period, such as [Video] or [Painting].


  • In a book publisher's name, leave out words like "Co." and "Inc." but include words like "Press" and "Books."
  • If an article includes a DOI number, copy it at the end of the citation with "" in front of it. This creates a working URL.
  • If using an openly available online resource that doesn't include a DOI, include the full URL (starting with http) at the end of the citation. You can either leave the URL as plain text or format it as a live hyperlink (blue and underlined). Check that the links work before submitting the paper. DO NOT put spaces in a URL to make it look better on the page - this is unnecessary and will break the URL.
  • If using an online resource that is updated frequently or changed without notice, include the retrieval date and URL at the end of the citation: "Retrieved May 15, 2020, from" You do not need to include this for most database resources.
  • If you get an article from a database without a DOI, you do not need to include a URL or the name of the databases. 
  • Always follow your assignment instructions! When in doubt, consult your instructor or librarian for assistance.