To avoid plagiarism, you must cite your sources when using them in your papers, both in the body of your paper (in-text citations) and in the list of references at the end (References).
In-text citations are brief, and generally include only the surname of the author, year, and page number.
1 Author: Some depth psychologists wonder whether the function of dreams is "taking them, as it were, back into the world in the form of enhanced self-understanding" (Flanagan, 2000, p. 41).
2 Authors: a Jungian view suggests that "dream symbols, or any other symbols for that matter, are attempts to individuate the anima, persona, shadow, and other archetypes and to unify them into a harmonious, balanced whole" (Hall & Nordby, 1999, p. 119).
3+ Authors: Sleep deprivation often results in "disruptions in cognition and memory deficits" (Spielman et al., 2017, p. 124).
No Author, No Date, No Page Number: It is thought that dreams "are the stories the brain tells during the REM (rapid eye movement) stage of sleep" ("Dreaming," n.d., "What Dreams Mean," para. 1).
There are also many ways to integrate the quote and brief citation information into the body of your paper:
Parenthetical Citation (Citation parts are all placed in the parentheses at the end of the quote): In REM sleep, there are often "pulses going to areas of the cortex that are known to be active when we are having vivid visual experiences while awake" (Flanagan, 2000, p. 13).
Narrative Citation (Citation parts are integrated with the narrative of the sentence): Thomas (2019) summarizes Jung in stating that play occurs between two dimensions: "the reality of the dream image and the material reality of our daily lives" (p. 100).
Paraphrase, no author (The content is summarized, rather than quoted): Many psychologists believe that dreams are a manifestation of repressed thoughts ("Dreams," 2016, pp. 334-335).
Secondary Source Citation (A quote is quoted in another work): One psychoanalytic theory claims that dreams are "the royal road to the unconscious" (Freud, 1900/2010, as cited in "Dreams," 2016, p. 334).